Volos sex date

Even if the masculine and feminine spheres may have been less sharply differentiated in the Hellenistic period compared with the Classical, the gender gap had by no means been eradicated, and this remains the case for women of 20th century Athens.There are certainly signs of gradual social transformation; women were seen to play more prominent roles in public life, especially during the last two decades of the 20th century (Clogg 2002), but most of them were still housewives, secluded in their houses, and still in the process of fighting for equality between the sexes.Human skeletal and dental remains are an invaluable source of information for interpreting the way of life of past people and also provide the only direct evidence of non-living populations’ health status.This research paper discusses the sex-related health differences observed in two skeletal populations from Greece, an ancient and a modern, by employing multiple health indicators, and aims at determining the biological and possible social factors that contribute to this variation.Numerous factors could be involved, including nursing practices and inequality in access to suitable food and medical resources (King et al. One can argue that that sex differences in social and biological status, i.e. Therefore, the socially-related factors affecting the health differences associated with the sexes still remain: (a) the differential access to the quality and quantity of food: women tend to be undernourished and usually rely on cheaper foodstuffs, such as carbohydrates, whereas men tend to consume more meat (Cook and Hunt 1998; Grivetti 2001); (b) the seclusion of women in the house (Fantham et al.1994); (c) the different types of occupation and general activity: men tend to get involved in more strenuous and risky jobs and activities (Standen and Arriaza 2000); (d) less favourable treatment of female children (King et al. The important question is what effect all these factors may have had on the distribution between the sexes of the diseases used in this study as health indicators.Dental enamel defects rates showed that in the ancient population, males had more chances of surviving childhood stress than females (females 19.5%, males 20.0%), whereas, in the modern population, the exact opposite was the case (females 6.1%, males 22.7%). Sex and Gender Related Health Status Differences in Ancient and Contemporary Skeletal Populations. Since palaeopathology as a science depends on the development of methodologies based on comparative methods (Armelagos 1998: 3), a comparative method is used here to test hypotheses of sex differences in health status as a result of biological and social factors.The main aims of this paper are to: In order to achieve these goals, 200 adult individuals, 100 from an ancient (3rd-1st century BC) and 100 from a modern (late 19th-late 20th century AD) population (Eliopoulos et al. Certain dental and skeletal pathological conditions (discussed below, in the Methodology section) were recorded and a statistical analysis was carried out in order to estimate the prevalence of the diseases in the two populations under study and to observe their distribution and pattern within them.

Women were still considered to be inferior to men and continued to spend most of their time in the house.Hypothesis 1: Male individuals are expected to exhibit higher overall frequencies of osteoarthritis and trauma because they tend to get involved in more physically demanding and risky jobs than women (Standen and Arriaza 2000).In the older adult groups in the modern population however, osteoarthritis and pathological fractures should arguably be more common in females, again because women live longer and are predisposed to osteoporosis, which causes pathological fractures, more frequently than men (Brickley 2002; Mays et al. Hypothesis 2: The levels of caries in the modern population are expected to be higher in the females.We know a few instances of women being awarded honorary citizenship or even magistracies, owning land and slaves, being wealthy, even migrating.Increased opportunities for education contributed to the emergence of women poets, artists, and philosophers.

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